Herbert Alexander Simon

Herbert A. Simon

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Premio Nobel de Economía

 

Simon was among the founding fathers of several of today's important scientific domains, including artificial intelligence, information processing, decision-making, problem-solving, attention economics, organization theory, complex systems, and computer simulation of scientific discovery. He coined the terms bounded rationality and satisficing, and was the first to analyze the architecture of complexity and to propose a preferential attachment mechanism to explain power law distributions.

 

 

General Problem Solver (GPS)

Solucionador General de problemas GPS

 

The Sciences of the Artificial, Herbert A. Simon, , MIT Press, First Edition1969,

Las ciencias de lo artificial; Herbert A. Simon, , Edit. A. T. E.; 1973

 

 

Herbert A. Simon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American political scientist, economist, sociologist, and psychologist, and professor—most notably at Carnegie Mellon University—whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology, cognitive science, computer science, public administration, economics, management, philosophy of science, sociology, and political science. With almost a thousand very highly cited publications, he is one of the most influential social scientists of the 20th century.

Simon was among the founding fathers of several of today's important scientific domains, including artificial intelligence, information processing, decision-making, problem-solving, attention economics, organization theory, complex systems, and computer simulation of scientific discovery. He coined the terms bounded rationality and satisficing, and was the first to analyze the architecture of complexity and to propose a preferential attachment mechanism to explain power law distributions.

He also received many top-level honors later in life. These include: In 1959 he became a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences [1]; in 1967 he was elected to the the National Academy of Sciences[2]; the ACM's Turing Award for making "basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing" (1975); the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics "for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations" (1978); the National Medal of Science (1986); and the APA's Award for Outstanding Lifetime Contributions to Psychology (1993).

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Contributions to artificial intelligence and psychology

Simon was a pioneer in the field of artificial intelligence, creating with Allen Newell the Logic Theory Machine (1956) and the General Problem Solver (GPS) (1957) programs. GPS was possibly the first method of separating problem solving strategy from information about particular problems.

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In the early 1960s Simon wrote a paper responding to a claim by the psychologist Ulric Neisser that machines might be able to replicate 'cold cognition', e.g. processes like reasoning, planning, perceiving, and deciding, but could not replicate 'hot cognition', including desiring, feeling pain or pleasure, and having emotions. Simon's paper was eventually published in 1967.

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Simon also collaborated with James G. March on several works in organization theory.

With Allen Newell, Simon developed a theory for the simulation of human problem solving behavior using production rules.[23] The study of human problem solving required new kinds of human measurements and, with Anders Ericsson, Simon developed the experimental technique of verbal protocol analysis.[24] Simon was interested in the role of knowledge in expertise. He said that to become an expert required about 10 years of experience and he and colleagues estimated that expertise was the result of learning roughly 50,000 chunks of information. A chess expert was said to have learned about 50,000 chunks or chess position patterns.[25]

Simon was also interested in how humans learn and, with Edward Feigenbaum, he developed the EPAM (Elementary Perceiver and Memorizer) theory, one of the first theories of learning to be implemented as a computer program. EPAM was able to explain a large number of phenomena in the field of verbal learning.[26] Later versions of the model were applied to concept formation and the acquisition of expertise. With Fernand Gobet, he has expanded the EPAM theory into the CHREST computational model.[27] The theory explains how simple chunks of information form the building blocks of schemata, which are more complex structures. CHREST has been predominantly used to simulate aspects of chess expertise.

He was awarded ACM's A.M. Turing Award along with Allen Newell in 1975. "In joint scientific efforts extending over twenty years, initially in collaboration with J. C. (Cliff) Shaw at the RAND Corporation, and subsequentially with numerous faculty and student colleagues at Carnegie Mellon University, they have made basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing."

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Alexander_Simon

 

 

Herbert Alexander Simon

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

Herbert Alexander Simon (15 de junio de 19169 de febrero de 2001), economista, politólogo y teórico de las ciencias sociales estadounidense. En 1978 le fue concedido el Premio Nobel de Economía por ser «uno de los investigadores más importantes en el terreno interdisciplinario» y «porque su trabajo ha contribuido a racionalizar el proceso de toma de decisiones».

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Alexander_Simon

 

 

 

Logic Theorist

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Logic Theorist is a computer program written in 1955 and 1956 by Allen Newell, Herbert Simon and J. C. Shaw. It was the first program deliberately engineered to mimic the problem solving skills of a human being and is called "the first artificial intelligence program."[a] It would eventually prove 38 of the first 52 theorems in Whitehead and Russell's Principia Mathematica, and find new and more elegant proofs for some.[2]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logic_Theorist

 

 

General Problem Solver (GPS)

 

General Problem Solver

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

General Problem Solver (GPS) was a computer program created in 1959 by Herbert Simon, J.C. Shaw, and Allen Newell intended to work as a universal problem solver machine. Any formalized symbolic problem can be solved, in principle, by GPS. For instance: theorems proof, geometric problems and chess playing. It was based on Simon and Newell's theoretical work on logic machines. GPS was the first computer program which separated its knowledge of problems (rules represented as input data) from its strategy of how to solve problems (a generic solver engine).

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Problem_Solver

 

 

The Sciences of the Artificial, Herbert A. Simon, , MIT Press, First Edition1969,

 

Las ciencias de lo artificial; Herbert A. Simon, , Edit. A. T. E.; 1973